Kerala

ജൈവ കീടനാശിനികള്‍

വേപ്പെണ്ണ എമള്‍ഷന്‍ പച്ചക്കറി വിളകളെ ആക്രമിക്കുന്ന ഇലതീനിപ്പുഴുക്കള്‍, ചിത്രകീടം, വെളളീച്ച, പയര്‍പ്പേന്‍ എന്നിവയ്ക്കെതിരെ ഫലപ്രദം. വേപ്പെണ്ണ എമള്‍ഷന്‍ തയ്യാറാക്കുവാന്‍ ഒരു ലിറ്റര്‍ വേപ്പെണ്ണയ്ക്ക് 60 ഗ്രാം ബാര്‍സോപ്പ് വേണം. അരലിറ്റര്‍ ചെറു ചൂടു വെളളത്തില്‍ ലയിപ്പിച്ച് പതപ്പിച്ചെടുത്ത ബാര്‍സോപ്പ് വേപ്പെണ്ണയുമായി ചേര്‍ത്ത് ഇളക്കണം. ഇത് 40 ഇരട്ടി വെളളം ചേര്‍ത്ത് നേര്‍പ്പിച്ചു വേണം ചെടികളില്‍ തളിക്കേണ്ടത്. നാറ്റപൂച്ചെടി എമള്‍ഷന്‍ വിവിധ വിളകളുടെ പ്രധാന ശത്രൂവായ മുഞ്ഞകളുടെ (ഏഫിഡുകള്‍) നിയന്ത്രണത്തിന് ഇത് ഫലപ്രദമാണ്. നാറ്റപ്പൂച്ചെടിയുടെ (ഹിപ്പറ്റിസ് സ്വാവിയോളന്‍സ്) ഇളം തണ്ടും ഇലകളും അരച്ചു പിഴിഞ്ഞ് ചാര്‍ എടുക്കുക. 60 ഗ്രാം ബാര്‍സോപ്പ് അരലിറ്റര്‍ വെളളത്തില്‍ ലയിപ്പിച്ചെടുത്ത ലായനി 1 ലിറ്റര്‍ ചാറുമായി ചേര്‍ത്തിളക്കി എമള്‍ഷന്‍ ഉണ്ടാക്കാം. ഇത് പത്തിരട്ടി വെളളത്തില്‍ ചേര്‍ത്ത് പ്രയോഗിക്കാം. വേപ്പിന്‍ കഷായം ഒരു ലിറ്റര്‍ കഷായം തയ്യാറാക്കുന്നതിന് 20 ഗ്രാം വേപ്പിന്‍ പരിപ്പ് വേണം. 30 ഗ്രാം ഉണങ്ങിയ കായകളില്‍ നിന്നും ഇത്രയും പരിപ്പ് ലഭിക്കും. സാധാരണയായി 0.1 മുതല്‍ 0.3 ശതമാനം വീര്യത്തിലാണ് ഇവ പ്രയോഗിക്കുന്നത്. 0.1 ശതമാനം വീര്യത്തില്‍ തളിക്കാന്‍ ഒരു ഗ്രാം വേപ്പിന്‍കുരു പൊടിച്ച് 1 ലിറ്റര്‍ വെളളത്തില്‍ ലയിപ്പിക്കണം. വേപ്പിന്‍കുരു പൊടിച്ചത് ഒരു തുണിയില്‍ കെട്ടി വെളളത്തില്‍ 12 മണിക്കൂര്‍ മുക്കി വയ്ക്കണം. പിന്നീട് കിഴി പലപ്രാവശ്യം വെളളത്തില്‍ മുക്കി പിഴിഞ്ഞ് ഇതിലെ സത്തു മുഴുവന്‍ വെളളത്തില്‍ കലര്‍ത്തുക. ചെടികളുടെ ഇല, കായ് എന്നിവ കാര്‍ന്നു തിന്നുന്ന പുഴുക്കള്‍, പച്ചത്തുളളന്‍ എന്നിവയ്ക്കെതിരെ ഇത് ഫലപ്രദമാണ്. ആര്യ വേപ്പിന്റെ ഇലയില്‍ നിന്നും കഷായമുണ്ടാക്കാവുന്നതാണ്. ഇതിനായി 100 ഗ്രാം പച്ചില 5 ലിറ്റര്‍ വെളളത്തില്‍, തിളപ്പിക്കുകയും തണുത്തശേഷം ചെടികളില്‍ പമ്പ് ഉപയോഗിച്ച് തളിക്കുകയും ചെയ്യാം. പുകയില കഷായം വില കുറഞ്ഞ പുകയില ഉപയോഗിച്ച് തയ്യാറാക്കുന്ന കഷായം പച്ചക്കറികളിലെ പല കീടങ്ങളേയും നിയന്ത്രിക്കുന്നത് നല്ലതാണ്. അര കിലോഗ്രാം പുകയില ഞെട്ടോടെ ചെറുതായി അരിഞ്ഞ് നാലര ലിറ്റര്‍ വെളളത്തില്‍ മുക്കി ഒരു ദിവസം വയ്ക്കുക. പുകയില കഷണങ്ങള്‍ പിഴിഞ്ഞ് മാറ്റി ലായനി അരിച്ചെടുക്കുക. 120 ഗ്രാം ബാര്‍ സോപ്പ് ചീളുകളാക്കി ചെറു ചൂടു വെളളത്തില്‍ ലയിപ്പിച്ച് പതപ്പിച്ചെടുക്കുക. ഈ സോപ്പ് ലായനി അരിച്ചെടുത്ത പുകയില കഷായത്തിലേക്ക് ഒഴിച്ച് നന്നായി യോജിപ്പിക്കുക. ഇത് 6 മുതല്‍ 7 മടങ്ങ് നേര്‍പ്പിച്ച് തളിക്കാന്‍ ഉപയോഗിക്കാം. വെളുത്തുളളി മിശ്രിതം 20 ഗ്രാം വെളുത്തുളളി നന്നായി അരച്ച് ഒരുലിറ്റര്‍ വെളളത്തില്‍ ചേര്‍ത്ത് അരിച്ചെടുക്കുക. എന്നിട്ട് 1 ലിറ്റര്‍ ലായിനിക്ക് 4 മില്ലി ലിറ്റര്‍ എന്ന തോതില്‍ മാലത്തിയോണ്‍ ചേര്‍ത്ത് ഇലയുടെ അടിഭാഗത്ത് ചെറുകണികകളായി പതിക്കുന്ന രീതിയില്‍ തളിച്ചാല്‍ പാവലിന്റെയും പടവലത്തിന്റെയും പ്രധാന ശത്രുവായ പച്ചത്തുളളനെ നിയന്ത്രിക്കാം. വെളുത്തുളളി വേപ്പെണ്ണ എമള്‍ഷനുമായി ചേര്‍ത്ത് ഉപയോഗിക്കാം. പടവല വര്‍ഗ്ഗ പച്ചക്കറികളുടെ പ്രധാന ശത്രുവാണ് കായീച്ചകള്‍. കേട് ബാധിച്ച കായ്കള്‍ പറിച്ചു നശിപ്പിക്കുന്നതും നാല് ചുവടിന് ഒരു കെണി എന്ന കണക്കില്‍ ഇടവിട്ട് പഴക്കെണികളും തുളസിക്കെണികളും സ്ഥാപിക്കുന്നതും കായീച്ചയ്ക്കെതിരെ വളരെ ഫലപ്രദമാണ്.

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New Varieties

New Varieties of Crops suited for Kerala RICE Varsha Duration 115-120 days (Kharif). 105-110 days (Rabi and Summer) Yield Grain – 3787 kg/ha Straw – 6835 kg/ha Characters Photoperiod insensitive, non-lodging, mid early variety resistant to WBPH and moderately resistant to blue beetles. Low susceptibility to blast and sheath blight under field conditions. Kernel red. long bolo and non-glutinous. Recommended for double crop wet lands of Palakkad and Thrissur. Dhanu Duration 159 days. Yield Grain – 3750 kg/ha Straw – 7188 Kg/ha Characters Photosensitive, Semitall, late maturing variety suitable for second crop season in Onattukara region. Withstand flood and drought conditions. Tolerant to stemborer, moderately tolerant to sheath blight, brown leaf spot, Red Kernel, Resistant to shattering. Chingam Duration 98 days. Yield Grain 3910 kg/ha Characters Non-photosensitive, Semitall, non lodging, early variety suitable for dry sowing in Onattukara region for Virippu season. Moderately tolerant to shealth blight and brown leaf spot. Tolerant to stemborer. Kernel red. Kunjukunju Varna Duration 110-115 days. Yield High Yield Potential Characters Photoperiod insensitive, early maturing, red rice variety. moderately tolerant to major pests like gall fly,leaf folder, whorlmaggot and stemborer. Moderately resistant to blast and moderately susceptible to shealth blight. Non-lodging, non-shattering and responsive to fertilizer. Suitable for double cropped areas of Palakkad, Thrissur and Ernakulam. Kunjukunju Priya Duration 105-110 days Yield High Yield Potential Characters Early maturing red rice. Non-lodging, non-shattering and fertilizer responsive. Moderately resistant to blast. Moderately susceptible to shealth blight. Moderately tolerant to major pests like gall fly, leaf folder, whorl maggot and stem borer. Suitable for double cropped areas of Palakkad, Thrissur and Ernakulam. Gouri Duration 115-120 days. Yield High Yield Potential Characters Medium tillering, dwarf, non-lodging medium duration variety moderately resistant to major diseases and pests. Kernel medium bold and red. Recommended for Kuttanad and Kole regions of Kerala. …

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Fertilizer

FERTILIZER RECOMMENDATION FOR MAJOR CROPS   N P K PADDY (kg/ha) Upland(Modan) PTB 28,29 and 30 High-yielding short duration varieties 40 60 20 30 30 30 Wet land (All regions) High-yielding short duration varieties High-yielding medium duration varieties Local varieties H4 Mashuri 70 90 40 70 50 35 45 20 45 25 35 45 20 45 25 COCONUT (Adult palm)kg/palm/annum. General recommendation (a) Average management (b) Good Management (c) For reclaimed clayey soils (as in Kuttanad) 0.34 0.50 0.25 0.17 0.32 0.35 0.68 1.20 0.90 Hybrid and high yielding palm (a) For irrigated areas (b) Rainfed 1.00 0.50 0.50 0.32 2.00 1.20         RUBBER From 1st year to 4th year :-10:10:4:1.5 NPK Mg mixture at the following rates: 3rd Month 225g / plant 9th Month 450g / plant 15th Month 450g / plant 21st Month 550g / plant 27th Month 550g / plant 33rd Month 450g / plant 39th Month 450g / plant From 5th year till tapping begins 12:12:12 NPK Mixture @ 125 kg /ha during April – May and September – October (Where mulching was practiced during initial years) 15:10:6 NPK Mixture @ 200 kg /ha during April – May and September – October (Where mulching was not practiced during initial years) Mature Rubber under tapping 10:10:10 NPK Mixture @ 300 kg /ha or 900 g / plant March -April or 15:15:15 NPK Mixture @ 200 kg /ha or 17:17:17 NPK Mixture @ 175 kg /ha or 19:19:19 NPK Mixture @ 160 kg /ha   N P K  TAPIOCA (kg per hectare) H.97, H.226 75 75 75       H.165, H.1687, H.2304 100 100 100       M4 and Local 50 50 50 SWEET POTATO (kg/ha ) 75 50 75 SESAMUM (kg/ha ) 30 15 30 GROUNDNUT (kg/ha ) 10 75 75 BANANA (g/plant)       Nendran (irrigated ) 190 115 …

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Kerala at a Glance

Area- 38,863 Sq.Km Percentage of Area to the area of Indian Union- 1.18 Length of Costal Line- 580 KM Highest Peak- Anamudi (2694 meters) West flowing rivers- 41 Nos. East flowing rivers- 3 Nos. Districts- 14 Nos. Taluks- 75 Nos. Revenue Villages- 1535 Nos. Grama Panchayats- 941 Nos. Corporations- 6 Nos. Municipalities- 86 Nos. M.L.A.s Elected- 140+ 1 Anglo Indian Nominee. Rajya Sabha- 9 Nos. Community Development Blocks- 152 Nos. Average Annual Rainfall- 2900 mm. Percapita land- 0.12 ha. Percapita production of food grain- 21.6 kg. No. of Padasekharams- 7359 No. of Kurumulaku Samrakshana Samithies- 1409 No. of Haritha Sanghams- 1581

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Problem Soils of Kerala

Problem Soils and Management Acidity, salinity, water logging and poor physical properties are the major problems that exist in the state. 1. Kuttanad arid soils Very strong soils (with pH less than 3.0) that are seen in Kuttanad areas are kept submerged in water for major part of the year as they lie below sea level: So, this area faces problems of floods and water stagnation. Toxicities of iron, aluminium, manganese are observed and the availability of calcium, magnesium, potassium is low. The organic matter rich soils of Kuttanad faces drainage problem apart form acidity. Occurrence of heavy rainfall damages the bunds while flooding results in severe crop damage. Management Research on soil acidity and plant growth, water management studied has to be intensified and proper agro-techniques for this area have to be framed. Apart from this, as rice is the major crop that is taken up for cultivation, certain precautions certainly helps to increase the productivity. Rice season starts by September-October and ends by January-February. Seeds should be sown only after dewatering the area. The soil should not be allowed to dry up after the seeds are sown. Formation of deep cracks and hand pans can be eliminated by submerging the field. 2. Kole soils Kole soils are also water-logged in nature like Kuttanad soils covering 11,000 ha in Trichur and Malappuram. The soils are shallow, acid saline due to intrusion of water, the characteristic feature that makes these soils to differ from Kuttanad acid soils. The soil is hard and brittle, poor in fertility.  Management Intrusion of seawater is to be prevented and heavy doses of manures and fertilizers are to be applied. By proper soil and water management suitable cropping system is to be adopted. 3. Coastal sandy soils . Poor fertility, high water table, improper drainage …

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Topography

Based on the physical features Kerala is classified as given below High Ranges (above 750m MSL) The mountainous land (elevation: 750 m to 2500 m above MSL) along the Western Ghats with jutting rocks and loamy soils constitutes the High Ranges. The two districts of Wayanad and Idukki and the eastern parts of the other districts bordering the Western Ghats come under this class. Most of the reserve forests of the state are in this tract. The important peaks in the Western Ghats are Anamudi (2690 m), Mukunti (2550m) and Nilgiris (2470m). The Palakkad gap with a width of 32 km is the largest pass in the Western Ghats. In addition, there are a few other passes in the Ghats such as Aramboli, kumali, kambam, Thevaram,Bodinaikannuur, karkken, periya and Perambadi. Plantations of tea, coffee, rubber and cardamom dominate the High Range region. High land (75-750m above MSL) This hilly tract on the western side of Western Ghats, comprising about 43 per cent of the land and supporting 14 per cent of the population, is covered with forests and small streams. Plantations of tea, coffee, cardamom and rubber are common. The soils are generally forest loams, which show wide variation in depth with a very high percentage of organic matter. A large percentage of the population of hill tribes lives in this region. Midland (7.5-75m above MSL) The midland plains comprising about 42 per cent of the land mass have an undulating terrain intersected by numerous rivers, small hills and valley and 59 per cent of the state’s population live in this tract. The soil is mainly laterite and supports an intense diversity of seasonal, annual and perennial crops like rice, sugarcane, tapioca banana, ginger, coconut, arecanut, pepper, cashew, rubber etc. Lowland (Up to 7.5m above MSL) The lowland bordering the …

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Soil Conservation

Soil conservation is an effort made by man to prevent soil erosion in order to retain the fertility of soil. It may not be possible to stop soil erosion entirely. Any erosion such as gullies already formed should be tackled by construction of dams or obstructions. Ploughing and tilling of land should be done along contour levels so that the furrows run across the slope of land. Bunds should be constructed according to contours. Trees reduce the force of straight winds and obstruct blowing away of dust particles. Plants, grass and shrubs reduce the speed of flowing water. Therefore, such vegetable cover should not be removed indiscriminately, where it dose not exist, steps should be taken to plant it. Natural vegetation cover prevents soil erosion in three ways : (i) The roots of plants bind together the particles of soil; (ii) Plants check the force of wind so that it cannot blow away the soil particles; and (iii) Plants lessen the force of rain as it reaches the ground. Measures for Soil Conservation (i) Planting cover crops such as grasses, on uncultivated land. Trees should be Planted along hill slopes. (ii) Adoption of correct farming techniques such as contour ploughing and strip Cropping,. Strip cropping is the practice of planting alternate rows of close growing plants such as beans and peas, with open growing crops such as corn. This practice prevents wind erosion. (iii) Terracing, the practice of cutting steps in hillside, to create level land for Cultivation. (iv) Construction of check dams on steep slopes which prevent gully erosion and Spread gullies. (v) Creation of wind breaks by planting lines of trees, hedges or fences which Obstruct the path of wind thereby reducing its speed and hence reducing soil erosion. (vi) Controlling grazing of pastures. (vii) Suspending cultivation for one season and more, so …

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Soil Erosion

Soil erosion – is the process of detachment and displacement of soil particles from land surface. Agencies involved – water, wind, sea waves and animals. 2 broad categories – (i) The Natural erosion or the geologic erosion or the normal erosion; (ii) Accelerated erosion or soil erosion – By soil erosion we mean accelerated soil erosion only. Reasons (1) Destruction of forests, (2) unscientific cultivation practices, (3) Heavy grazing in pasture and grass lands. Harmful effects – (1) Convert the fertile lands to barren and unproductive, (2) causes frequent floods and diversion of course of flow of rivers through fertile river banks due to deposition of soil in river basins, (3) silting of dams due to deposition of sand and silt. Types of Erosion – (1) Rainwater erosion includes – splash erosion, sheet erosion, hill erosion and gully erosion – out of these Gully erosion is the most serve for. (2) Land slides erosion – Earthquakes, heavy rainfall, etc., are the major factors – Heavy destruction of forests also (takes places is sloppy and mountainous areas). (3) Stream Bank Erosion – due to torrential rains in hilly areas causes flooding of rivers and streams causing large scale erosion throughout the stream banks. (4) Sea shore erosion – due to turbulent waves in the sea during heavy rains and winds. (5) Wind erosion – in low rainfall areas – due to strong winds – soil particles are deposited on fertile soils of far of places. Causes expansion of deserts to fertile areas. Winds cause movement of soil particle in 3 ways – (i) Saltation, (ii) Suspension, (iii) surface creep. Saltation – soil particles having a size of between 0.1 to 0.5 mm diameters are directly hit by wind which lead to a bouncing action of the particles- this bouncing action is …

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Soil Testing

Soil Testing Facilities in Kerala There are 14 soil-testing labs in Kerala, i.e., one for each district. A central soil testing labs is functioning at Parottukonam, Nalanchira to supervise, coordinate and control the activities of the different soil testing labs in the state. There are 9 mobile soil-testing labs with a testing capacity of 50 samples per day one each in 9 districts (except districts of Ernakulam, Pathanamthitta, Idukki, Wayanad and Kasargodu). Soil Test Crop Response correlation Studies Interpreted S.T. Data – best basis for fertiliser recommendation. But the response of the crop depends on other factor like plant population, crop variety, soil moisture, etc.- many methods were suggested to improve ST interpretations. The all India Coordinated Project for investigation on ST – crop response – started in 1967. The studies have indicated significant regression equation for different soil types for predicting crop response and for preparing suitable fertiliser schedules based on ST data. The purpose of ST crop response studies is securing and selecting the best ST method and the calibration of ST values for fertiliser recommendation – the studies enable to know the type of response curve operating in a set of soil-crop-agro-climaric condition, e.g., of each curves – linear, mitscherlich-bray, sigmoid, etc – curves are useful to determine fertiliser does to obtain economic yield – different approaches – critical level approach, percentage yield approach, targeted yield/prescription method . Soil Test Summaries and Soil Fertility Map Soil test data can be summarized to provide information on overall fertiliser requirements for specific areas and on the kinds of fertiliser materials and mixture most suitable for those areas. Helpful for planners and administrators in determining policies of fertilizer production, distribution and consumption – useful for researchers also – can be prepared soil wise, village wise, block wise or district wise. …

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